Chapter IV – Non-discrimination and fair trading (Art. 11-12)
Art. 11 Open Data Directive - Non-discrimination
Art. 12 Open Data Directive - Exclusive arrangements
- The re-use of documents shall be open to all potential actors in the market, even if one or more market actors already exploit added-value products based on those documents. Contracts or other arrangements between the public sector bodies or public undertakings holding the documents and third parties shall not grant exclusive rights.
- However, where an exclusive right is necessary for the provision of a service in the public interest, the validity of the reason for granting such an exclusive right shall be subject to regular review, and shall, in any event, be reviewed every three years. The exclusive arrangements established on or after 16 July 2019 shall be made publicly available online at least two months before they come into effect. The final terms of such arrangements shall be transparent and shall made publicly available online.
This paragraph shall not apply to digitisation of cultural resources.
- Notwithstanding paragraph 1, where an exclusive right relates to the digitisation of cultural resources, the period of exclusivity shall in general not exceed 10 years. Where that period exceeds 10 years, its duration shall be subject to review during the 11th year and, if applicable, every seven years thereafter.
The arrangements granting exclusive rights referred to in the first subparagraph shall be transparent and made public.
In the case of an exclusive right referred to in the first subparagraph, the public sector body concerned shall be provided free of charge with a copy of the digitised cultural resources as part of those arrangements. That copy shall be available for re-use at the end of the period of exclusivity.
- Legal or practical arrangements that, without expressly granting an exclusive right, aim at, or could reasonably be expected to lead to, a restricted availability for the re-use of documents by entities other than the third party participating in the arrangement, shall be made publicly available online at least two months before their coming into effect. The effect of such legal or practical arrangements on the availability of data for re-use shall be subject to regular reviews and shall, in any event, be reviewed every three years. The final terms of such arrangements shall be transparent and made publicly available online.
- Exclusive arrangements existing on 17 July 2013 that do not qualify for the exceptions set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 and that were entered into by public sector bodies shall be terminated at the end of the contract and in any event not later than on 18 July 2043.
Exclusive arrangements existing on 16 July 2019 that do not qualify for the exceptions set out in paragraphs 2 and 3, and that were entered into by public undertakings, shall be terminated at the end of the contract and in any event not later than on 17 July 2049.
The processing of personal data for purposes other than those for which the personal data were initially collected should be allowed only where the processing is compatible with the purposes for which the personal data were initially collected. In such a case, no legal basis separate from that which allowed the collection of the personal data is required. If the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller, Union or Member State law may determine and specify the tasks and purposes for which the further processing should be regarded as compatible and lawful. Further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes should be considered to be compatible lawful processing operations. The legal basis provided by Union or Member State law for the processing of personal data may also provide a legal basis for further processing. In order to ascertain whether a purpose of further processing is compatible with the purpose for which the personal data are initially collected, the controller, after having met all the requirements for the lawfulness of the original processing, should take into account, inter alia: any link between those purposes and the purposes of the intended further processing; the context in which the personal data have been collected, in particular the reasonable expectations of data subjects based on their relationship with the controller as to their further use; the nature of the personal data; the consequences of the intended further processing for data subjects; and the existence of appropriate safeguards in both the original and intended further processing operations.
Where the data subject has given consent or the processing is based on Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard, in particular, important objectives of general public interest, the controller should be allowed to further process the personal data irrespective of the compatibility of the purposes. In any case, the application of the principles set out in this Regulation and in particular the information of the data subject on those other purposes and on his or her rights including the right to object, should be ensured. Indicating possible criminal acts or threats to public security by the controller and transmitting the relevant personal data in individual cases or in several cases relating to the same criminal act or threats to public security to a competent authority should be regarded as being in the legitimate interest pursued by the controller. However, such transmission in the legitimate interest of the controller or further processing of personal data should be prohibited if the processing is not compatible with a legal, professional or other binding obligation of secrecy.