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Chapter VII – Supervision and enforcement (Art. 31-37)

Art. 31 NIS2 - General aspects concerning supervision and enforcement arrow_right_alt

  1. Member States shall ensure that their competent authorities effectively supervise and take the measures necessary to ensure compliance with this Directive.
  2. Member States may allow their competent authorities to prioritise supervisory tasks. Such prioritisation shall be based on a risk-based approach. To that end, when exercising their supervisory tasks provided for in Articles 32 and 33, the competent authorities may establish supervisory methodologies allowing for a prioritisation of such tasks following a risk-based approach.
  3. The competent authorities shall work in close cooperation with supervisory authorities under Regulation (EU) 2016/679 when addressing incidents resulting in personal data breaches, without prejudice to the competence and tasks of the supervisory authorities under that Regulation.
  4. Without prejudice to national legislative and institutional frameworks, Member States shall ensure that, in the supervision of compliance of public administration entities with this Directive and the imposition of enforcement measures with regard to infringements of this Directive, the competent authorities have appropriate powers to carry out such tasks with operational independence vis-à-vis the public administration entities supervised. Member States may decide on the imposition of appropriate, proportionate and effective supervisory and enforcement measures in relation to those entities in accordance with the national legislative and institutional frameworks.
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  • 121
  • 122

Recital 121

The processing of personal data, to the extent necessary and proportionate for the purpose of ensuring security of network and information systems by essential and important entities, could be considered to be lawful on the basis that such processing complies with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject, in accordance with the requirements of Article 6(1), point (c), and Article 6(3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Processing of personal data could also be necessary for legitimate interests pursued by essential and important entities, as well as providers of security technologies and services acting on behalf of those entities, pursuant to Article 6(1), point (f), of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, including where such processing is necessary for cybersecurity information-sharing arrangements or the voluntary notification of relevant information in accordance with this Directive. Measures related to the prevention, detection, identification, containment, analysis and response to incidents, measures to raise awareness in relation to specific cyber threats, exchange of information in the context of vulnerability remediation and coordinated vulnerability disclosure, the voluntary exchange of information about those incidents, and cyber threats and vulnerabilities, indicators of compromise, tactics, techniques and procedures, cybersecurity alerts and configuration tools could require the processing of certain categories of personal data, such as IP addresses, uniform resources locators (URLs), domain names, email addresses and, where they reveal personal data, time stamps. Processing of personal data by the competent authorities, the single points of contact and the CSIRTs, could constitute a legal obligation or be considered to be necessary for carrying out a task in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller pursuant to Article 6(1), point (c) or (e), and Article 6(3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, or for pursuing a legitimate interest of the essential and important entities, as referred to in Article 6(1), point (f), of that Regulation. Furthermore, national law could lay down rules allowing the competent authorities, the single points of contact and the CSIRTs, to the extent that is necessary and proportionate for the purpose of ensuring the security of network and information systems of essential and important entities, to process special categories of personal data in accordance with Article 9 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, in particular by providing for suitable and specific measures to safeguard the fundamental rights and interests of natural persons, including technical limitations on the re-use of such data and the use of state-of-the-art security and privacy-preserving measures, such as pseudonymisation, or encryption where anonymisation may significantly affect the purpose pursued.

Recital 122

In order to strengthen the supervisory powers and measures that help ensure effective compliance, this Directive should provide for a minimum list of supervisory measures and means through which the competent authorities can supervise essential and important entities. In addition, this Directive should establish a differentiation of supervisory regime between essential and important entities with a view to ensuring a fair balance of obligations on those entities and on the competent authorities. Therefore, essential entities should be subject to a comprehensive ex ante and ex post supervisory regime, while important entities should be subject to a light, ex post only, supervisory regime. Important entities should therefore not be required to systematically document compliance with cybersecurity risk-management measures, while the competent authorities should implement a reactive ex post approach to supervision and, hence, not have a general obligation to supervise those entities. The ex post supervision of important entities may be triggered by evidence, indication or information brought to the attention of the competent authorities considered by those authorities to suggest potential infringements of this Directive. For example, such evidence, indication or information could be of the type provided to the competent authorities by other authorities, entities, citizens, media or other sources or publicly available information, or could emerge from other activities conducted by the competent authorities in the fulfilment of their tasks.

Art. 32 NIS2 - Supervisory and enforcement measures in relation to essential entities arrow_right_alt

Art. 33 NIS2 - Supervisory and enforcement measures in relation to important entities arrow_right_alt

Art. 34 NIS2 - General conditions for imposing administrative fines on essential and important entities arrow_right_alt

Art. 35 NIS2 - Infringements entailing a personal data breach arrow_right_alt

Art. 36 NIS2 - Penalties arrow_right_alt

Art. 37 NIS2 - Mutual assistance arrow_right_alt